Orissa, officially spelled Odisha, is a state of India, located on the South east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE. The modern state of Orissa was established on April 1, 1936, as a province in British India and consisted predominantly of Oriya speakers. April 1 is therefore celebrated as Utkala Dibasa (foundation day of Orissa). Cuttack remained the capital of the state for over eight centuries until April 13, 1948 when Bhubaneswar was officially declared as the new capital of Orissa, and still is the present capital of this state.
Its territory formed a part of the ancient Kalinga of Mahabharat fame. Ashok the Mauryan King of Magadh, invaded Kalinga in 261 BC and this event has gone down in history as the Great Kalinga war. Then the people of Kalinga offered a relentless & dauntless resistance, but they lost at last. How desperate was the battle, how bitterly was it fought, and how terrible were the results, are known from Ashok’s own descriptions. This is what he wrote about the Kalinga war in his thirteenth Rock Edict. The country of Kalinga was conquered when King Priyadarshan, beloved of the Gods had been anointed eight years. One hundred and fifty thousand were there from captured, one hundred thousand were there slain, and many times as many died.
But what was the result? The conquered Kalinga conquered her conqueror. This was the last war fought by him after which he became the great champion of Buddhism and upheld the values of peace and non-violence.
Politics in Odisha:–
All states in India are governed by a parliamentary system of government based on universal adult franchise. India’s parliament is bicameral. The lower house is called the Lok Sabha. Odisha contributes 21 members to Lok Sabha. They are directly elected by the electorates. The upper house is called the Rajya Sabha. Odisha contributes 10 members to Rajya Sabha. They are elected by the state’s legislature.
The main players in the politics in Odisha are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party.
List of Districts of Odisha:-
In Odisha there are 30 districts:
Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Boudh, Cuttack, Debagarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jharsuguda, Kandhamal, Kalahandi, Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur, Sundargarh.
The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar. The other major cities are Cuttack, Brahmapur, Puri, Balasore, Rourkela, and Sambalpur.
Transportation In Odisha:-
Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes.
Biju Patnaik International Airport (IATA: BBI, ICAO: VEBS), also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, is situated in the city of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It is the sole international airport in the state. It is named after the former Chief Minister of Odisha, Biju Patnaik, who was also a famed aviator and freedom fighter. As of 2013, Bhubaneswar was ranked the 17th busiest airport in India by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) registering a 1.82% traffic growth over the previous year. On 5 March 2013, a new terminal (T1) was inaugurated by Minister of Civil Aviation, Ajit Singh. The terminal caters to all domestic flights while the older terminal (T2) has been refurbished to support impending international operations.The Government of India accorded international status to the airport on 30 October 2013.
Odisha has a total of 17 airstrips and 16 helipads.The Government of Odisha have announced to develop an airport at Jharsuguda, making it a full-fledged domestic airport. Five greenfield airports were also to be upgraded at Rayagada, Paradip, Dhamra, Angul and Kalinganagar in an effort to boost intra-State and inter-State civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Gopalpur, Jharsuguda, Barbil and Rourkela were also to be upgraded. Air Odisha, is Odisha’s sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.
1. Dhamara Port
The Dhamra Port Company Limited (DPCL) has been entrusted, by way of a concession granted by Government of Orissa to build and operate a deep draught, all weather, multi user port at Dhamra in Bhadrak district on BOOST (Build, Own, Operate, Share and Transfer) basis. The concession period is for 34 years including a period of 4 years for construction and can be renewed or extended for two additional periods of 10 years.
Situated between Haldia and Paradeep, Dhamra Port is well sheltered between the mainland and Kanika Sands Island on the mouth of the river Dhamra. The location of Dhamra is in close proximity to the mineral belt of Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal and its dedicated connectivity will help serve this hinterland with the greatest efficiency.
Company achieved Financial Closure for Phase-I of the project in February’07 with signing of a loan agreement with the consortium of lenders led by Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI). The construction of Phase-I commenced in March’07 and the Port began commercial operations on May 06th, 2011.
2. Gopalpur Port
Gopalpur, a natural port of Orissa, is one of the ideally located and topographically suited deep sea ports on the East Coast of India. The mammoth task of developing Gopalpur has been awarded to Sara International Ltd. and Orissa Stevedores Ltd. by the Government of Orissa. At the end of the development project 2010 the port would be capable of handling capesize vessels.
3. Paradip Port
Paradip is one of the Major Ports of India and late Sri Biju Patnaik, the then Chief Minister of Orissa, is the founder father of Paradip Port. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, laid the foundation stone of the Port on 3rd January 1962 near the Confluence of river Mahanadi and Bay of Bengal. Government of India took over the management of the Port from the Government of Orissa on 1st June 1965. INS “INVESTIGATOR” had the privilege of maiden berthing in the Port on the 12th March, 1966. The Port was declared open by Mr. Peter Stambolic, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia on the same day. Government of India declared Paradip as the Eighth Major Port of India on 18th April 1966 making it the FIRST MAJOR PORT in the East Coast commissioned after independence.
Major cities of Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.
East Coast Railway: East Coast Railway – one of the blue chip zones of Indian Railways came into existence in its present form with effect from 1st April 2003. Since then, the new zonal railway headquarter has been functioning at Bhubaneswar, the capital city in the state of Orissa. The geographical jurisdiction of the railway is however extended over three states encompassing almost all parts of Orissa along with parts of Srikakulam, Vizainagaram & Visakhapatnam districts of North Eastern Andhra Pradesh, and Bastar & Dantewada districts of Chhatisgarh State. As such, these regions with a long coastal line are rich in mineral and other natural resources, and are on the threshold of an industrial upsurge.
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